Jorginho, 29, beat Blues team-mate N’Golo Kante and Manchester City’s Kevin de Bruyne to the top award.
Thomas Tuchel took the men’s coach of the year award after guiding Chelsea to the Champions League.
Barcelona captain Alexia Putellas claimed the women’s Player of the Year award.
Jorginho played 56 times for club and country last season and scored nine goals, winning the Champions League with Chelsea and the European Championship with Italy.
He started the new season by claiming a third Uefa trophy of the year by lifting the Super Cup in Belfast.
Chelsea team-mate Edouard Mendy was named goalkeeper of the year after keeping nine clean sheets during the run to lifting the Champions League trophy and France Kante was named midfielder of the year.
Manchester City’s Ruben Dias was named defender of the year after helping the club to their first Champions League final in his debut season with the club.
Blues boss Tuchel was named men’s coach of the year after guiding his side to victory over Manchester City in Porto, just four months after replacing Frank Lampard as manager.
Erling Braut Haaland, 21, was named forward of the year.
Meanwhile, Denmark captain Simon Kjaer and the medical team that saved Christian Eriksen’s life were awarded the Uefa President’s Award by Aleksander Ceferin.
Barcelona dominated the women’s awards, winning all bar one.
As well as claiming the top award of women’s Player of the Year, captain Alexia Putellas was also named midfielder of the year.
Her team-mates Sandra Panos and Jennifer Hermoso were named goalkeeper and defender of the year respectively.
Manager Lluis Cortes was named coach of the year after claiming the Primeria Division title and guiding his side to their first Champions League triumph with victory over Chelsea in Gothenburg.
Paris St-Germain’s Irene Paredes took the defender of the year trophy to deny Barca a clean sweep.
Men’s Uefa awards
Player of the year – Jorginho (Chelsea)
Coach of the year – Thomas Tuchel (Chelsea)
Goalkeeper of the year – Edouard Mendy (Chelsea)
Defender of the year – Ruben Dias (Manchester City)
Midfielder of the year – N’Golo Kante (Chelsea)
Forward of the year – Erling Braut Haaland (Borussia Dortmund)
President’s award – Denmark captain Simon Kjaer and medical team
Women’s Uefa awards
Player of the year – Alexia Putellas (Barcelona)
Coach of the year – Lluis Cortes (Barcelona)
Goalkeeper of the year – Sandra Panos (Barcelona)
Defender of the year – Irene Paredes (PSG)
Midfielder of the year – Alexia Putellas (Barcelona)
Forward of the year – Jennifer Hermoso (Barcelona)